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Strawberry example term project



Henrika Marcinkenaite
HORT6020, Spring 2003
Strawberry PYO Farm
I. TYPE OF OPERATION
Time spent in selecting a suitable orchard site is an invaluable investment, which will increase
the profits of the fruit grower for many years to come. Our orchard, situated on Highway 441
and located within 10 miles of Athens, a population center of 140,000, is in an excellent location
to attract urban dwellers to the farm and market fruits on the pick-your-own (PYO) basis. Two
acres set aside for the strawberry plasticulture production will be marketed exclusively for the
pick-your-own customers.
The major advantage of the PYO operation is elimination of the picking costs, direct marketing
to consumers, and steady prices throughout the harvesting season. A number of facilities such as
picnic tables, shades, clean restrooms, drinking water fountain and a petting zoo will be installed
to accommodate PYO customers and to encourage them to spend quality family time at the farm.
Strawberry plasticulture is an annual hill training system in which strawberry transplants are
planted in the early fall in double rows at densities of approximately 17,400 plants per acre on
fumigated, raised beds, that are covered with black plastic mulch. In this system berries are
harvested 7 to 8 months after planting, compared to 12 months in a matted row training system.
The picking season lasts for six to eight weeks. One acre of strawberry plasticulture produces
the same annual yield of berries as 2.5 acres of matted row production.
II . SITE SELECTION
After inspecting the newly purchased 35-acres of land, two acres located on the southern
boundary of the lot, bordering Highway 441, were designated for plasticulture strawberry
cultivation. There were several reasons why the particular plot was chosen.
Soil. The physical characteristics of the soil were especially suitable for strawberry production.
Sandy loam soil is ideal for shaping raised beds and ensuring good internal drainage. Large pore
sizes make the sandy soil suitable for fumigation, which will be performed yearly for soil-borne
disease, nematode and weed control. The second best choice would have been clay loam soil.
However, high clay content, stones, rocks and underlying hardpan make the soil more difficult to
prepare and shape into raised beds. Preferred soil pH is 6.0-6.2, but this characteristic is easy to
adjust through the pre-plant application of lime.
The field has a slight slope of 1%, which is beneficial for improved external water drainage.
Since half of the field will be covered with plastic mulch, hours of sprinkler irrigation or heavy2
rain may cause an accumulation of water, which needs to flow out freely without causing erosion
and leaving puddles.
Climate. The muscadine grapes surrounding the strawberry plot from the north and the west
will act as a natural windbreak providing some protection from wind-borne freezes in late winter
and early spring. However, it is important to have an adequate air movement for the plants to
dry quickly after dews and rainfall. Strawberry beds will be laid out following north-south
orientation, to ensure that plants on both sides of the double bed grow and develop uniformly.
Logistics. Strawberry beds located on the southern boundary of the farm along the Highway 441
will be easily spotted by passing cars. Good signage, easy access from the highway and a
roadside stand located next to the entrance to the farm will encourage motorists to stop by to buy
some fresh fruits. The parking lot and the checkout stand are conveniently located next to the
strawberry beds.
II I. CULTIVAR SELECTION
The three strawberry varieties that will be cultivated in our farm are ‘Chandler’ (1-1/2 acre),
‘Camarosa’ (1/4 acre), and ‘Sweet Charlie’ (1/4 acre). ‘Chandler’ has a proven record of success
in the Southeast and will be used as the main cultivar. Few rows of ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Sweet
Charlie’ will offer customers some different flavored berries and will head-start an early picking
season (beginning of April). All strawberry cultivars will be purchased from the Lassen Canyon
Nursery, a reputable northern Californian nursery, which guarantees anthracnose free plants.
‘Chandler’ is a cultivar of choice for commercial production not only in the US, but in other
parts of the world, including Mexico and Central America, Italy, France and Spain. Although
developed by the University of California, ‘Chandler’ performs extremely well in the cool and
wet spring weather of Georgia. ‘Chandler’s early maturity, tolerance to cool temperatures and
long harvest period makes it suitable for plasticulture production. In addition, ‘Chandler’ has
higher yields compared to traditional Georgia grown varieties (‘Earlibelle’, ‘Apolo’, ‘Atlas’) and
is very well liked by customers for its glossy red skin, high internal color and slightly sub-acid
flavor.
‘Camarosa’ is another cultivar developed by the University of California which fares very well
in the Georgia climate. ‘Camarosa’ ripens very early, the fruits are large and firm with brilliant
red internal fruit color.
‘Sweet Charlie’ is a new variety from the University of Florida that shows considerable promise
as an earlier season cultivar (7 to 10 days earlier than ‘Chandler’). Many consumers show a
preference for ‘Sweet Charlie’ berries that have a high sugar to acid ratio. ‘Sweet Charlie’
shows great anthracnose tolerance.3
IV. ORCHARD LAYOUT
Physical layout. 58 strawberry beds will be laid out in a 290’x300’ rectangular plot. 300 feet is
an optimal row length for uniform drip irrigation flow. In addition, such row length is
convenient for PYO customers for the easiest picking with minimum supervision. Otherwise,
distant portions of many rows may remain unpicked resulting in over-ripe rotting fruit. For a
detailed drawing of the strawberry farm see Attachment A.
Plant density. Strawberries will be planted in two rows spaced 12 inches apart on 3-foot beds
with 5-foot bed centers. In each double row plants will be spread at every 12 inches and offset
between the rows for improved light and air circulation. This density will require 600 plants per
bed or a total of 17,400 plants per acre. The same plant density will be maintained for all three
cultivars.
Training system. Strawberry plasticulture is a type of annual hill training system. 10 inch high
and 3 feet wide beds will be shaped and covered with black plastic mulch. High beds provide
excellent air and water circulation, thus encouraging vigorous root development. The beds will
be 36 inches wide at the base and 34 inches wide on the top. A slight slope on both sides will let
the water drain from the top of plastic mulch.
Orchard floor management. Tall fescue will be sown in the aisles and will serve as a “living
mulch” during fall and winter season. It is important to dress the aisles immediately after
fumigation in order to prevent soil washing caused by heavy rains and irrigation. Starting in
early spring the aisles will be mowed weekly, to maintain clean and convenient access to the
strawberry beds for PYO customers.
Irrigation system. The drip irrigation system is an important component of the successful
strawberry plasticulture production. Water for irrigation will be supplied by the well located on
the farm. A fine mesh screen filter will be used at the intake to remove sand and other suspended
particles.
The drip irrigation system will use thin, disposable tubing of 4-8 mils diameter. One drip tape
will be laid down in the center of the bed, with emitters spaced at every 12 inches. The drip
irrigation will maintain a continuous moist strip along the row. Water output rates are estimated
to be between 0.2 and 0.5 gallons per minute per 100 feet of tape.
Frost protection. Strawberries are sensitive to frost injuries especially during the bloom period
in late winter and early spring – the crowns are killed at 15-20°F, the blossoms at 32°F. It is
important to have a reliable sprinkler irrigation system to protect strawberry blooms from
freezing.
PVC pipe of 4 inches diameter will be used as mainline to deliver water from the well to the
field. Lateral pipes of 2-4 inches diameter will be spaced 60 feet apart. The sprinklers will be
placed at every 60 feet along the lateral in a staggered grid pattern. A pumping capacity of 60 to
70 gallons per minute for each acre will be necessary to ensure complete coverage of the field
when using sprinklers for frost protection. Application of 0.10 inch per hour (2,800 gallons per4
acre per hour) is sufficient for most cases of frost protection. Frost protection may be necessary
4-10 times per season, averaging 6-10 hours per event. A detailed layout of the sprinkler
irrigation system can be found in the Attachment B.
V. CALENDAR OF ANNUAL EVENTS
Annual schedule of operations
Calendar Practice Equipment
July Perform soil test
Adjust soil pH by broadcasting lime Tractor, rotary spreader, disc
September Cultivate soil Tractor, disc
Broadcast fertilizer (N, K, P, micronutrients) Tractor, rotary spreader
Form beds, install drip irrigation and fumigate Tractor, superbedder
Install sprinkler irrigation Pickup truck
October Pre-wet soil using drip irrigation Drip irrigation
Plant strawberries Pickup truck
Sprinkler irrigate for 5-7 days Sprinkler irrigation
Sow tall fescue in aisles Drop spreader
February Start drip irrigation (2x/week) and fertigation (1x/week) Drip irrigation
Perform plant tissue analysis (every 2 weeks)
Adjust micronutrients through fertigation if necessary Drip irrigation
Spray fungicides (1x/week) and insecticides (1x/month) Tractor, sprayer
March-April Sprinkler irrigate for frost protection (4-10 times) Sprinkler irrigation
Mow aisles (1x/week) Push mower
April-June Harvest strawberries (6-8 weeks)
June Kill plants with herbicide Tractor, sprayer
Remove plastic and drip tubes
Cultural practices
Soil preparation. Soil test analysis will be performed three months before planting (July).
Following the test recommendations, soil pH will be adjusted to 6.0-6.2 by applying dolomitic
lime. Lime will be broadcast using a rotary spreader and incorporated into the soil using a 6’
disc pulled by a tractor.5
Bed forming. Before the bed forming, the soil will be thoroughly cultivated. Three passes with
a 6’ disc pulled by a tractor will be necessary. Pre-plant fertilizer will be broadcast using a
rotary spreader. 0.3 tons per acre of 10-10-10 fertilizer with micronutrients will be applied,
providing 60 lbs of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus each. This will give an excellent headstart for strawberry transplants.
Beds will be formed using a superbedder attachment pulled by a tractor. Superbedder is
equipped to perform four operations in one pass – it will shape 10 inch high beds, lay drip
irrigation tubes, fumigate and apply plastic mulch. Two people will closely monitor operation of
the superbedder, notifying the tractor driver when to stop to reload the rolls of plastic mulch,
irrigation tubes or to correct an uneven bed shape.
Telone C-35 will be a fumigant of choice in our strawberry farm. Methyl bromide, a traditional
strawberry fumigant, must be phased out by 2005 due to its damaging impact to the ozone layer.
Extensive research has been performed to find an adequate replacement suitable for strawberry
fumigation. According to the research paper published by the University of Georgia
horticulturalists, fumigation with Telone C-35 results in a strawberry crop comparable to the one
fumigated with methyl bromide.
Fumigation and bed forming will be done in the middle of September, 2-3 weeks before planting
strawberries. After the beds are formed, a sprinkler irrigation system will be installed and tested.
Planting. Strawberries will be planted in the first two weeks of October. ‘Sweet Charlie’ and
‘Camarosa’ can be planted up to one week earlier than ‘Chandler’. Before planting, beds will be
thoroughly pre-wetted through the drip irrigation. Adequate soil moisture will help reduce the
stress of transplanting and will encourage the development of new roots.
Strawberry planting positions will be marked on the black plastic mulch following 12”x12”
offset pattern. Strawberries will be planted by hand through the holes punched into the plastic.
Overhead irrigation will be initiated immediately after planting and will continue for 5-7 days for
several hours a day at the rate of 0.10 inch per hour. The primary purpose of the sprinkler
irrigation at this time is to prevent foliage loss until the root system is developed and is able to
absorb sufficient moisture from the soil.
After the strawberries are planted, tall fescue will be sown in the aisles using a 21” wide drop
spreader.
Growing season. Beginning with the first bloom in late February, the drip irrigation will be
initiated and will continue throughout the harvest ending in late May or early June. More water
will be needed as foliage and blossoms begin to develop in March and early April. Peak water
use is expected in May during the hot, dry conditions to replace evaporative loss.
To determine daily water need for strawberry plants, a tensiometer will be installed at 6 inch
depth. The watering system will be turned on when the tensiometer reads 20 to 30, and turned
off when the reading drops to 10 (field capacity). Tensiometer has a solenoid switch which will6
automate the operation of the drip irrigation system. It is expected that the drip irrigation will be
used on average twice per week.
Another use of the drip irrigation system is to deliver fertilizer directly to the plant roots
(fertigation). Over a 100-day period nitrogen and potassium applications will be made weekly,
at the equivalent of 0.50-0.75 pound per acre of nitrogen per day, and 1.0 pound per acre of
potassium per day. Other micronutrients will be applied as needed.
Plant tissue analysis will be performed in late winter and will be repeated biweekly throughout
the growing season. Leaf and petiole sampling is the most precise evaluation of the strawberry
nutritional status at a given point. For plant tissue analysis the most recent mature trifoliate
including petioles will be taken from mother plants. About 15-20 trifoliates and petioles are
required for the analysis to be representative. The following sufficiency of various nutrients will
be attempted:
N 3.0-4.0%
P 0.2-0.4%
K 1.1-2.5%
Ca 0.5-1.5%
Mg 0.25-0.45%
S 0.8-1.0%
Fe 50-125ppm
Mn 25-100 ppm
Zn 15-50ppm
Cu 4-15ppm
B 25-50ppm
Once a week strawberries will be sprayed with fungicide. It is estimated that a total of 12
applications of Captan 50W (at the rate of 2.5 gal per acre) and 2 applications of Nova 40W (at
the rate of 2.5 oz per acre) will be needed. Both Captan and Nova are effective against
phomopsis leaf blight, common leaf spot, leaf scorch, botrytis blight. Nova also protects against
powdery mildew. In addition to fungicide, two applications of insecticide will be applied. AgriMek 0.15 will be used against mites and will be applied at the rate of 8 oz. per acre.
In March and April the sprinkler irrigation system will be employed to protect strawberry
blossoms from cold injury. It is estimated that 4-10 events of frost protection lasting 6-10 hours
each may be necessary. The goal is to keep the temperature of the flower or fruit above 30°F.
To measure the exact temperature around strawberry plants, thermometers will be placed in the
lowest spots in the field. The thermometers will be wired to an alarm, which will ring a bell
once the temperature in the field drops to 35°F. The sprinklers will be turned on at 34°F and will
be kept running until the ice begins to melt and continues to melt when no additional irrigation is
applied. It is estimated that with little or no wind, about 0.10 inch of irrigation per hour (about
2,800 gallons per acre per hour) is required for frost protection down to a temperature 22°F.
Starting in March, tall fescue grass in the aisles will be mowed weekly using the push mower.
Well-maintained aisles will provide convenient access to the strawberry beds for PYO
customers.
Harvest. The farm will open for strawberry picking in the middle of April. Berries will be sold
by the weight at the estimated price of $1.00 per pound. Electronic scales will be used to ensure
accurate and speedy checkout operation. 5 gal plastic containers will be provided for pickers
free of charge or a price break will be offered to consumers using their own containers. It is7
anticipated that the harvest will continue for 6-8 weeks and will end at the end of May or
beginning of June.
Bed removal. At end of June, strawberry beds and aisles with tall fescue will be sprayed with
herbicide (Roundup, 0.5 gal per acre). After 1-2 weeks the plastic mulch will removed and the
soil will be left fallow for couple of months. In July the initial soil test will be performed do
determine nutrient requirements for the next year’s strawberry cultivation.
VI . ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
To have a better understanding of the costs, income and profitability associated with the
strawberry plasticulture production, an economic analysis of the production costs was prepared.
The budget contains several cost components:
Variable costs are expenses that vary within a production period. They include purchase
of seeds, fertilizer, pest control, water use, hourly labor and equipment use. These
expenses are also described as operating, direct, cash, or out-of-pocket costs.
Fixed costs do not depend on the level of output. They include purchase of land,
depreciation, taxes and interests on investment, insurance and management fees. These
costs are sometimes called indirect or overhead costs.
Total costs are variable and fixed costs added together. For an enterprise to be
profitable, income earned from selling the produce has to exceed the total costs. Even if
no profit is earned above total costs, the enterprise may be continued if variable costs are
covered and if it is a short-term condition.
Operating costs of the strawberry plasticulture production total to $6867.50 per acre. These
expenses include purchase of the strawberry plants, fertilizers, pest control, bed preparation
supplies, water use, estimated hourly labor, and equipment variable costs, such as fuel and
repairs. The amount also includes harvesting and marketing expenses.
The biggest expense is the supervision labor estimated at 48 hours per week for 8 weeks at the
rate of $5.25 per hour, totaling to $2016.00. However, if farm personnel will be performing this
task, especially on slow days and weekdays, this expense will be considerably cut down. Second
biggest expense is the purchase of the strawberry plants, totaling to $904.80. Plasticulture
strawberry production is an intensive management system with 2.5 times more plants per acre
than in the matted row system. Considering the savings from growing the same amount of plants
on 1 acre versus on 2.5 acres, the plant cost will seem to be a bargain. When estimating water
use for irrigation, the worst-case scenario with 10 events of frost protection at 10 hours per event
was considered (totaling to $810.00 per acre). In warm springs with fewer frost nights the water
use for irrigation will be considerably reduced. All of the above examples illustrate the variable
nature of the direct costs. The actual expenses of the several growing seasons will allow us to
calculate the average values of the operating costs.8
Fixed costs are overhead expenses incurred every year regardless of the production output. In
our budget this includes interest, taxes and depreciation of our investment – land and equipment.
The land cost is treated like a lease and charged at 6% of its real value, estimating that the full
price will be paid over 15 years. The same principle is applied to equipment costs, considering
that the full value of the machinery will be paid over its lifetime of 5-15 years. Another major
part of the fixed costs is overhead expenses and management expenses, each charged at 5% of
the operating costs. The total of the fixed costs of strawberry plasticulture is $2364.97 per acre.
Total costs of the strawberry production are operating and fixed costs added together which total
to $9232.47 per acre. To determine whether the farm will be profitable we need to know the
receipts from the strawberry sales. This figure, however, is much harder to estimate since it
mostly depends on the growing season and the natural conditions. One night of frost in late
March can destroy most of the strawberry blooms and wipe out the entire harvest. Since cash
receipts from strawberry sales is a function of price and amount sold, it is important to
understand how to maximize cash income by manipulating these two factors.
TABLE 1. Cash receipts based on yield (cullage rate 25%) and price
Price ($/lb)
Yield (lbs) 0.75 1.00 1.25
10,000 5625.00 7500.00 9375.00
15,000 8437.50 11250.00 14062.50
20,000 11250.00 15000.00 18750.00
25,000 14062.50 18750.00 23437.50
30,000 16875.00 22500.00 28125.00
The breakeven price for our strawberry production is $9232.47. For the farm to be profitable we
will attempt to collect receipts, which would exceed the total costs. As indicated in the Table 1,
the average yield of 20,000 lbs sold at $1.00 per pound would earn $15,000, covering anticipated
total costs and providing a profit of $5767.53 per acre. A more detailed breakdown of the
strawberry farm budget is provided in the Attachment C.9
Sources:
(1992). “Strawberry Plasticulture Guide for North Carolina.” The Southern Region Small Fruit
Center (Available at: http://www.smallfruits.org/StPlastG/ncplas.htm).
(1998). “Strawberry Production Costs.” Manitoba Agriculture and Food (Available at:

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/financial/farm/cac19s03.html).

(2001). “Strawberry – Irrigation.” Manitoba Agriculture and Food (Available at:

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/fruit/blb01s21.html).

(2002). “2002 Georgia Ag Facts.” Georgia Agricultural Statistics Service (Available:

http://www.nass.usda.gov/ga/pubpages/agfacts.htm).

(2002). “Variety Information.” Lassen Canyon Nursery (Available at:

http://www.lassencanyonnursery.com/variety_info.htm).

Bish, E. and D. Wechsler (1998). “Strawberry Plasticulture Notebook: A Guide to Strawberry
Plasticulture Production.” The Southern Region Small Fruit Center (Available at:

http://www.smallfruits.org/Notebook/noteb.htm).

Campbell, C. R. (1998). “Review of Strawberry Nutrition and Foliar Sampling.” The Southern
Region Small Fruit Center (Available at:

http://www.smallfruits.org/NutrientMgt/revnut.htm).

Campbell, C. R. and G. S. Miner (1996). “Nutrient Management for Strawberry Production.” The
Southern Region Small Fruit Center (Available at:

http://www.smallfruits.org/NutrientMgt/nutrit.htm).

Cross, T., A. Sheets and B. Strik (1991). “Enterprise Budget: Strawberry Establishment,
Willamette Valley Region.” Oregon State University Extension Service EM 8462
(Available at: http://eesc.orst.edu/AgComWebFile/EdMat/EM8463.pdf).
Demchak, K., J. K. Harper and G. L. Greaser (2001). “Strawberry Production.” Pennsylvania
State University Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Alternatives (Available at:

http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/farmmanagement/enterprise).

Fernandez, G. E., Z. G. Abad and F. J. Louws (2000). “Chemical Alternatives to Methyl
Bromide for Strawberry Production in North Carolina.” North Carolina State University,
Departments of Horticulture and Plant Pathology (Available at:

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/airc/2000/35louws.pdf).

Fonsah, G. E., G. Krewer and T. Jennings (2002). “Strawberry Budget on Plasticulture, Drip and
Overhead Irrigated.” University of Georgia, College of Agricultural & Environmental
Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service (Available at:

http://www.smallfruits.org/GrowerInfo/strgro.htm).10

Greaser, G. L. and J. K. Harper (1994). “Enterprise Budget Analysis.” Pennsylvania State
University Cooperative Extension, Agricultural Alternatives (Available at:

http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/farmmanagement/enterprise).

Hendrix, F. F. (1994). “Strawberry Diseases.” University of Georgia, College of Agricultural &
Environmental Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service Leaflet 62 (Available at:

http://www.ces.uga.edu/pubcd/l62-w.html).

Horton, D. and P. Brannen (2003). “Georgia Pest Management Handbook: Commercial
Strawberry Disease and Insect Control.” University of Georgia, Entomology Department
(Available at:

http://www.ent.uga.edu/pmh/Horticultural_Crops/Fruit_and_Nuts/Strawberry/Commerci

al_Disease_and_Insect_Control.htm).
Krewer, G., S. C. Myers and F. F. Hendrix (2002). “Home Garden Strawberries.” The University
of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Cooperative Extension
Service Leaflet 329 (Available at: http://www.ces.uga.edu/pubcd/L329.htm).
Locascio, S. J. (2001). “Alternatives To Methyl Bromide Fumigation For Polyethylene-Mulched
Strawberries.” Southwest Florida Research and Education Center (Available at:

http://www.imok.ufl.edu/liv/groups/cultural/pests/plymulch.htm).

O’Dell, C. and J. Williams (1999). “Hill System Plastic Mulched Strawberry Production Guide
for Colder Areas.” Virginia Cooperative Extension, Pub. 438-018 Pub. 438-018
(Available at: http://www.smallfruits.org/GrowerInfo/strgro.htm).
Poling, E. B. (1993). “Strawberries in the Home Garden.” North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Service Leaflet 8205 (Available at: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-
8205.html).
Reese, A. (2003). “Old Berry Fields Back Home? Farmers Weigh Option.” Georgia Faces (Jan.
30 2003).
Rieger, M., G. Krewer and P. Lewis (2001). “Solarization and Chemical Alternatives to Methyl
Bromide for Preplant Soil Treatment of Strawberries.” HortTechnology 11 (2): 258-264.
Winterbottom, C., J. Mueller, T. Trout, F. Westerlund and Tri-Cal (1998). “On-Farm Methyl
Bromide Preplant Soil Fumigation Alternatives in California Strawberry Production.”
California Strawberry Commission, Dow Agro Sciences, USDA-ARS Water Management
Research Laboratory, Tri-Cal (Available at:

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/airc/1998/047mueller.pdf).

Wood, M. (2001). “Strawberry Growers Test Methyl Bromide Alternatives.” Agricultural
Research 49(1) (Available at:
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan01/straw0101.htm).Attachment A
Layout of the strawberry farm
To the Petting zoo ª



Equipment yard
Well
Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Office
Blackberries

Roadside stand
Parking

Highway 441
‘Chandler’
1-1/2 acres
‘Camarosa’
1/4 acre
‘Sweet Charlie’
1/4 acre
Muscadines
LEGEND
❶ Customer parking
❷ PYO Checkout stand
❸ ❹ Picnic tables
❺ Restrooms, water fountain
ª Petting zoo
È NorthAttachment B
Layout of the sprinkler irrigation system
Sprinkler
Equipment yard
Roadside stand
Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Office
Well
290’
Lateral pipe Mainline
25’ 60’
300’
60’Attachment C
YIELD (5 lb buckets) 4,000 Gross
CULLAGE RATE 0.25 Returns ==> 15000
PRICE ($ /5lb) 5.00
O p e r a t i n g C o s t s
ITEM UNIT QUANT. PRICE AMT ($)
PLANTS each 17,400 0.05 904.80
LIME (dolomitic) ton 0.5 27.90 13.95
FERTILIZER (10-10-10) ton 0.3 186.00 55.80
NITROGEN (injected) ton 0.3 184.00 55.20
FUMIGANT (Telone C-35) gals 24 18.50 444.00
PLASTIC MULCH 1000 ft 8.778 18.50 162.39
TALL FESCUE 25lbs 2.5 29.00 72.50
HERBICIDE (Roundup) gals 0.5 49.00 24.50 1 application
INSECTICIDE (Agri-Mek 0.15) oz 16 5.00 80.00 2 applications
FUNGICIDE (Captan 50W) gals 30 3.76 112.80 12 applications
FUNGICIDE (Nova 40W) oz 5 4.00 20.00 2 applications
TRACTOR (labor) hrs 7 8.50 59.50
TRACTOR (var cost) hrs 7 11.97 83.79
SUPERBEDDER (var cost) hrs 1 1.35 1.35
6′ DISK (var cost) hrs 2 0.28 0.56
SPRAYER (var cost) hrs 3.5 0.13 0.46
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION (var cost) hrs 100 0.13 13.00
LABOR (picking supervision) hrs 384 5.25 2016.00
LABOR (farm operation) hrs 22 7.50 165.00
IRRIGATION (water use) acre-inch 15 54.00 810.00
INTEREST % 0.08 5095.60 271.90
Pre – Harvest Variable Costs ——————————————————> 5367.50
Harvesting & Marketing Costs
CONTAINER 5 lb 3000 0.25 750.00
MARKETING/Advertising 5 lb 3000 0.25 750.00
Total Harvest and Marketing —————————–> 0.5 1500.00
Total Variable Costs ===============================>> 6867.50
F i x e d C o s t s
TRACTOR hrs 7 15.28 106.96
SUPERBEDDER (purchase) each 0.033 4084.00 134.77 15 yr/2 acres
SUPERBEDDER (fixed cost) hrs 1 2.45 2.45
6′ DISK (purchase) each 0.033 870.00 28.71 15 yr/2 acres
6′ DISK (fixed cost) hrs 2 2.61 5.22
SPRAYER (purchase) each 0.033 2000.00 66.00 15 yr/2 acres
SPRAYER (fixed cost) hrs 3.5 3.43 12.01
PUSH MOWER each 0.05 330.00 16.50 10 yr/2 acres
ROTARY SPREADER each 0.1 106.00 10.60 5 yr/2 acres
DROP SPREADER each 0.1 44.00 4.40 5 yr/2 acres
DRIP IRRIGATION arce 1 400.00 400.00
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM acre 1 634.00 634.00
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION (purchase) each 0.033 1200.00 39.60 15 yr/2 acres
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION (fixed cost) hrs 100 0.07 7.00
OVERHEAD % 0.05 6867.50 343.37
MANAGEMENT % 0.05 6867.50 343.37
LAND % 0.06 3500.00 210.00
Total fixed costs ( $ / acre) ———————————————————-> 2364.97
Total costs, fixed & variable ========================>> 9232.47
Unit Cost Breakdown $/5 lb
PRE – HARVEST VARIABLE COST 1.79
HARVEST AND MARKETING COST 0.50
FIXED COST 0.79
Total budgeted cost ($ /5 LB) ————————————————–> 3.08
NET RETURN ($ / acre / year) > >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 5767.53
Budget of the strawberry farm